In the second industrial revolution (which will be the industrial revolution of 2029), industries will be transformed and the impact on India’s economy will be enormous.
What is 2nd Industrial Revolution?
A second industrial transformation is a process of replacing the existing labour force with automation.
The concept is called as the ‘second industrial revolution’ (SID).
In this post, we will look at why this transformation is crucial to India’s future.
What are the first two industrial revolutions in India?
The first two Industrial Revolutions were started by the British in the 19th century.
They were two revolutions in one: the Industrial Revolution of the 19 th century and the Industrial Revolt of the 20 th century.
Both were driven by the industrialisation drive of the British Empire and the need to make better use of the technology of the day.
First industrial revolution: the first 20 years The British Empire became a global power in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
In the late 18 th century, India was the largest trading partner of the newly-formed British Empire, and it was its trade that enabled British India to emerge from the 19 century.
As a consequence, the Indian government encouraged the use of machinery in manufacturing.
The Industrial Revolution in India started in the early 1900s.
The Indian government was very open about its intentions for the development of the country.
In 1891, the first Industrial Revolution was launched in the country, when the Government of India granted the right to start manufacturing in the new year.
From the very first days of the Industrialisation drive, the government had embarked on a huge programme of mechanisation.
During the second Industrial Revolution, the Government made it compulsory for manufacturing to begin in July, the official start of the year.
In 2019, the second wave of industrialisation took place in the entire country.
The industrialisation push was so powerful that by 2019, India’s manufacturing capacity had reached 1,817.3 million tonnes, or 2.2% of the world’s capacity.
Industrialisation in India is also a highly integrated process.
The machinery was developed in one factory and sold to another in a different factory.
Each of these two factories had to work closely together to produce the same product.
The output of each of these factories is the same.
All this led to the rapid increase in the manufacturing capacity of India and the rapid development of manufacturing as a sector in the economy.
This accelerated the industrialization drive in the first decade of the 21 st century.
The country’s manufacturing sector has increased from a few thousand workers in the 1960s to nearly 1.5 million in 2018.
What is the second 20 years of the second major industrial revolution?
In the second decade of 20 th Century, the world experienced the Industrialization and Deindustrialisation drive.
Industrialisation and De-industrialisation are the two major transformations in the history of the modern world.
Industrialization meant the conversion of the industrial base of the economy into the consumer market, where consumers have a direct relationship with the producer and the company is transformed into a company which manufactures goods for the domestic market.
De-manufacturing meant the production of products for export to other countries.
Deindustrialization means the production and selling of goods which are made in a way that makes them less affordable for the consumer and the firm.
How did the Industrial Development drive in India unfold?
Over the last three decades, India has seen the development and growth of manufacturing, especially the manufacture of consumer goods.
While there is a lot of debate over the exact dates of the two successive industrial revolutions, the basic point is that both industrial revolutions are driven by technological developments.
Why is this important?
Industry has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last two decades.
India’s productivity has increased significantly.
From a small industrial town of 200,000 people in 1947, to a large metropolitan city of 2.5 lakh people in 2021, the country’s productivity in manufacturing has increased by a factor of 2,500.
This is more than the growth of the whole of the developed world over the same period.
India has also been able to harness the immense power of the information technology and robotics.
With the use in India of mobile phones, the nation has been able increase its productivity significantly.
The technology used in manufacturing is advancing at a faster rate than that of any other country in the world.
There is a huge demand for these products, which has helped the country create a global market.
By 2020, India will have a market share of around 55% of global manufacturing.
By 2021, this figure will have risen to nearly 90%.
What impact will the second modernisation drive have on the manufacturing sector in India and other emerging economies?
As mentioned above, the industrial revival is a global trend.